# Pcalc Manual

9903 Series * | LEQ Series^{+} | PSC-RL Series |

9903II Series * | LPC-40L^{+} | PSC-RS Series |

Beetle Series (Old Version) | LSQ-40L^{+} | PSL-11 |

Beetle Series(New Version) | NDC Series | PZC-5 |

CB Series | NHC Series | SA121 Series |

CCi-220 Series (Old Version) | NHV Series | SA130 Series |

CCi-220 Series (New Version) | NV Series | SB52 Series |

CK-60^{+} | NW Series* | SB731 Series |

CP Series | PC-40/L^{+} | SD931 Series |

DC Series* | PC-80L^{+} | TLE Series |

HS Series^{+} | PS-5^{+} | Wave Series |

Required Texts: Saxon Algebra 1 ISBN 345); Saxon Algebra 1 Solutions Manual ISBN 376 1-year college prep class for high school students. Algebra 1 Saxon is an incremental development and continual review course including exponents, polynomials, factoring, graphing & other algebra concepts. In case you're not familiar with the manual method for determining food cost percentage, let's first take a look at the formula. Food Cost Percentage Formula. To calculate the food cost percentage of an individual portion or menu item, you simply add up the cost of the ingredient(s) and divide that result by the menu price.

^{+}These scales can only be calibrated by a Licensed Service Agent for Legal-For-Trade use.

## Introduction

PCalc is simple programmer calculator with stack instructions. It allows you to create, edit, run and debug simple programs. PCalc program consists of one or more functions. Functions can be nested (as in Pascal). Code written outside the body of any function is considered to belong toYour complete guide to Apple software, and apps designed for Apple users. Learn about the best Mac apps, iOS apps, Watch apps, and utilities. The manual has thorough explanations so students can work at home, carefully duplicating the keystrokes shown in the manual in order to get the same screens. The manual is divided into 12 units. At the school where I taught after retiring from public school, trigonometry was to be taught in the fall and non-trig material in the spring.

*main*function. Each function may have local variables. Also program may have input parameters which should be specified before starting execution of the program. Result of program execution can be placed in stack or in local variables.

## Instruction set

PCalc implements simple stack machine. Operands of each instruction should be pushed on operand's stack before execution of the operation. When operation is executed, it pops it arguments from stack and result of operation is pushed on the stack. Stack can be also used to path data to called functions and get results of execution of thus function. PCalc instructions can be grouped in several units: load/store, operators, functions and flow control:-

1 | Duplicate top stack element | ||

`SWAP` | - | 2 | Swap two values on the top of the stack |

`LOAD_E` | - | 0 | Push E constant to the stack |

`LOAD_PI` | - | 0 | Push PI constant to the stack |

Function | Operands | Description |
---|---|---|

`ABS` | 1 | Absolute value |

`ACOS` | 1 | Arc cosine |

`ASIN` | 1 | Arc sine |

`ATAN` | 1 | Arc tangent |

`ATAN2` | 2 | the theta component of the point in polar coordinates corresponds to the point Cartesian coordinates specified by function operands. |

`CEIL` | 1 | Smallest integer value which is not less than operand |

`COS` | 1 | Cosine |

`EXP` | 1 | Exponent |

`CEIL` | 1 | Largest integer value which is not greater than operand |

`FRAC` | 1 | Fraction part of the operand value |

`INT` | 1 | Integer part of the operand value |

`LOG` | 1 | Natural logarithm |

`LOG10` | 1 | Logarithm with base 10 |

`MAX` | 2 | Maximum of two operand values |

`MIN` | 2 | Minimum of two operand values |

`POW` | 2 | Raise first operand to the power specified by second operand |

`RND` | 0 | Generate random number in range [0,1) |

`ROUND` | 1 | Round operand to the closest integer value |

`SIN` | 1 | Sine |

`SQRT` | 1 | Square root |

`TAN` | 1 | Tangent |

### Edit program menu

When you create new program or edit existing one, you will see code of*main*function. Use

`Insert`

command to add new instruction. To add instruction, you should first select group of instructions and then choose particular instruction in the group. If instruction requires additional information (name of variable, immediate constant,...), then special input dialog will be started. For local variables and program parameters you can either select one of the existed names or add new name. It is possible to delete instructions using `Delete`

command. It is possible to move the label from one instruction to another. First you should position cursor on the instruction with label, then execute `Move`

command. You then will be asked to select instruction to which label should be moved. Obviously, all transfers to the original instruction referencing this label will now be redirected to new location.

You can get list of all subfunctions of the current function execute `Functions`

command. Selecting function from the list will open edit dialogue for specified function. Nested function can access local variables of the outer functions.

To get list of all visible local variables execute `Variables`

. It will print list of all local variables declared in this and containing functions. It is possible to rename or delete variable (only variables of the self function can be renamed or deleted). Attempt to delete used variable will be rejected.

### Run program menu

Run program form first ask you to enter values of the program input parameters (if any) and then start program execution. Elapsed program execution time is displayed at the screen. It is possible to stop the program using`Stop`

command, in this case debugger is activated. When the program is terminated, it is possible to inspect results of execution. Results of execution can be either stored in stack, either in local variables of main function. Content of the stack is dumped. And to see values of particular local variables of main function use `Variables`

command. Using `Restart`

command it is possible to rerun the program (with new values of parameters).

### Debug program menu

Debugger is activated when you start program in debug mode or when you stop execution of the program. In debugger it is possible to execute program step-by-step, inspecting content of stack and local variables.`Stack`

command can be used to dump the operands stack, `Variables`

command - to inspect values of local variables and ### Pcalc Lite Manual

`Trace`

### Pcalc Manual

command - to see back trace (function call stack).### Pcalc Manual

At any moment you can continue normal execution of the program or restart it.